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Abstract: Featured ApplicationCrack Growth Assessment for Fracture Mechanics. AbstractA crack growth simulation program based on the advanced iterative-finite element method (AI-FEM) was developed to predict realistic crack growth of structures. The developed program was suggested to calculate the exact stress intensity factor for arbitrary structures by regenerating the crack tip mesh as the crack grows. The main advantages of the developed program are to estimate each different crack growths along the crack tip line and to simulate the cracking transition from a surface crack to a through-wall crack under a complex stress field. For these purposes, the sensitivity analyses were performed for various influence variables on stress intensity factors, such as element types and crack dimensions. Based on the results of sensitivity analyses, the appropriate criteria for crack tip modeling to be used in AI-FEM were suggested to calculate sufficient converged SIF. The program developed in this research was validated through stress corrosion crack growth and natural crack growth examples including cracking transition, and it was confirmed that the program simulates crack growth well and has reasonable methods for cracking transition.Keywords: stress intensity factor; fatigue crack growth; stress corrosion crack growth; program; finite element method
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Similarly, the official Sketchfab add-on lets you download and use any of the hundreds (thousands?) of models posted as free on their site. It also makes it extremely easy to upload and share your models with other people. They aren't Blender-specific, so there won't be any procedural materials or ready to use rigs, but they make up for it with the sheer amount of available content.
Software Distribution Unsupported executable versions of the programs FRANC2D, CASCA, OSM, FRANC3D/Classic, and BES are distributed freely. Copyright and ownership of the programs remain with the Authors. Users can freely download the programs below. However, neither the Authors, nor the Cornell Fracture Group, nor Cornell University, nor the Sponsors are obliged to provide support or maintenance. Users are obliged to acknowledge the program(s) in all papers or reports where applicable. See full Policy Statement.
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Once centers of holes are selected, a number of spheres with those centers are modeled as shown in Fig. 4a. Those spheres have the same diameter, which value is determined based on technical needs. 2 or 3 mm of the diameter is suggested for upper or lower limbs. Values may vary on special cases depending on clinical application. Ventilation holes are created via geometrically Boolean operation between three-dimensional spheres and the free surface of the cast. This operation subtracts elements inside the sphere from the cast surface. It then develops a cast surface with uniformly distributed ventilation holes as displayed in Fig. 4b. The bigger size of the holes, the lighter weight of the structure will be built. However, the big size of the hole suggests that a relatively weak structure is developed due to less solid areas keeping in the structure. Engineering assessment of strength such as finite element analysis is recommended for validation.
The properties of orb web silks have been extensively characterized1,2,3,4,5,6, and they typically comprise five silk types, with two additional types found in the egg cases7,8. The mechanical properties vary across the silk types7,8 and depend, in part, on the content of crystalline and amorphous regions providing strength and extensibility5,9,10,11. All extant spiders produce silk, which may have originally been used to provide protection for the spiders and their eggs, and it is thought that foraging webs are derived from this ancestral state12,13,14 with concomitant changes in silk properties4. Crab spiders (Thomisidae) are typically described as ambush predators, remaining concealed in the vegetation before seizing their prey, but do not build foraging webs15,16,17,18. These spiders nevertheless produce draglines and attachment discs19, form egg cases and use silk to construct protective leaf nests15. The Australian thomisid Saccodomus formivorus20 is a remarkable exception, constructing a basket-like web that facilitates the capture of its ant prey20,21,22,23. The spiders construct their webs on low-lying shrubs that are in close proximity to either the nests or foraging trails of ants (MAE, pers obs). Foraging worker ants of several different species may be attracted to the silk of these webs, and those that venture into the basket are subsequently captured by the resident spider23. Clearly, the silk of the basket web of S. formivorus has properties that differ from those of other, conventional foraging webs. In particular, the silk must support the remarkable feature of the basket-like design: high dimensional stability that allows a free-standing web structure. Here, we describe the micro-morphology of the basket web and its structural and mechanical properties. We reveal that micro- and submicron fibers, exhibiting a distinct chemical composition, yield threads that are extraordinarily resilient against lateral loads compared with the major ampullate silk of orb webs. We further reveal that the base of the basket web contains spider eggs: this is arguably the first documented example of an elaborate spider foraging web that has evolved as an extension of the protective egg case.
The crab spider S. formivorus assembles micro- and submicron fibers into threads to build a basket web with an extraordinarily high dimensional stability, which provides a foraging platform to capture ants, as well as a protective refuge for the resident spider and its eggs. Although this basket web is unique across spider webs, some insects also build free-standing silken structures. For instance, the moths of the family Urodidae build cage-like, protective cocoons34,35,36, which seem to possess a similar dimensional stability compared with the webs of S. formivorus. Free-standing, single silk threads were further observed with lacewings, forming egg stalks made of proteins with a cross-β structure37.